compensate — industrious — dynamic — marginal — enterprising — merit — exploit — promote — incentive — resign
- Definisi: compensate v. To give an employee money or other things in exchange for the work he or she does (Parts of speech:compensation n, compensatory adj)
- Contoh: My pay doesn’t properly compensate me for my efforts, but my other benefits, like health insurance, fill in the gap.
- Tips: Compensate is often followed by a for phrase.
- Definisi: dynamic adj. Full of energy (Parts of speech: dynamism n, dynamically adv)
- Contoh: This job requires a dynamic person, someone who will look for opportunities instead of just waiting around for them.
- Definisi: enterprising adj. Creative in thinking of ways to make money (Parts of speech: enterprise n (Note:There is no verb “to enterprise.”)
- Contoh: Immigrants are often among the most enterprising members of soci-ety, partly because anyone brave enough to make an overseas move is likely to be a risk-taker.
- Definisi: exploit v. To take advantage of; to treat inconsiderately in order to profit (Parts of speech: exploitation n, exploitive adj)
- Contoh: (1). The company tried to exploit the low interest rates to expand oper-ations. (2). The foreign mining company exploited our copper resources and then simply left.
- Definisi: incentive n. A possible benefit that motivates a person to do a certain thing
- Contoh: This city’s willingness to support its public schools gave us an incentive to move here with our two young children.
- Tips: Incentive is usually followed by a to phrase.
- Definisi: industrious adj. Willing to work hard (Parts of speech: industriousness n, industriously adv)
- Contoh: The Dutch settlements in Ottawa County were founded by industrious farmers who objected to frivolous behavior such as dancing.
- Tips: Only people can be industrious; companies cannot.
- Definisi: marginal adj. Not very significant or effective (Parts of speech: marginally adv)
- Contoh: Our new advertising campaign had only marginal success, raising sales by a mere 3 percent.
- Definisi: merit n. Value; success based on one’s work, not on luck (Parts of speech: merit v, meritorious adj)
- Contoh: Pay raises at our company are based on merit, as determined by a committee of managers.
- Tips: Merit is uncountable.
- Definisi: promote v. To move someone to a higher position in a company (Parts of speech: promotion n)
- Contoh: Because of his excellent handling of the Vredeman account, Jim Harris was promoted to vice president.
- Tips: Promote is very often followed by a to phrase indicating the position one has been moved up to.
- Definisi: resign v. To quit one’s job (Parts of speech: resignation n)
- Contoh: Because of controversy over his leadership style, Morton resigned from his job as president.
Latihan Persiapan TOEFL 1: Find the word or phrase that is closest in meaning to each word in the left-hand column. Write the letter in the blank.
- —–1. Compensate ———— (a) good at finding business opportunities
- —–2. Dynamic ———— (b) hard-working
- —–3. Enterprising ———— (c) energetic
- —–4. Industrious ———— (d) move up
- —–5. Promote ———— (e) pay
Latihan Persiapan TOEFL 2: Circle the word that best completes each sentence.
- Some companies move their factories to poor countries in order to (exploit / compensate) the desperation of people who are willing to work for very low wages.
- For the last five years, we’ve seen only (dynamic / marginal) im-provements in our productivity.
- Judging by actual money-generating (promotion / merit), Williams is the company’s most valuable employee.
- I had a lot of (compensation / incentive) to move to our new facility in Minnesota, because two of my brothers live there.
- Unless my employer stops polluting local rivers, I’m going to (resign / exploit).
Latihan Persiapan TOEFL 3: Read the passage to review the vocabulary you have learned. Answer the questions that follow.
In the 1960s and 1970s, America was reaching the end of its role as a manufacturing power. Old-style systems of compensation, especially
company pension plans, were impoverishing many com-panies. Much to the disadvantage of less-industrious workers, companies started demanding merit, not just seniority, before someone could be promoted. Many managers who were only marginally effective were encouraged to resign. These changes were painful, but unavoidable, symptoms of a growth spurt in the U.S. economy. Economies grow and change just as people do. A truly enterprising businessperson knows how to exploit these large changes and become involved in tomorrow’s dynamic businesses, not yesterday’s. There’s still plenty of money to be made in America, a very effective incentive for workers to adapt to new conditions.
1. Which sentence best expresses the essential information of this passage?
- A. Most companies cannot afford to compensate their employees like they used to.
- B. Anyone interested in making a lot of money should move to the United States.
- C. The 1960s and 1970s were times of great change for the American economy.
- D. Just as retailers adapt to economic change, so must manufacturers.
2. The author of this article expresses a negative opinion about __________.
- A. businesspersons
- B. workers who depended on seniority for promotio
- C. companies that exploit changes in the economy
- D. the American economy as a whole