Vocabulary for TOEFL – Crimes at Sea

Vocabulary for TOEFL – Crimes at Sea

Vocabulary

abduction — intentionally — coerce — piracy — detain — predicament — deviant — smuggle — distort —villainy

abduction

  • Definisi: abduction n.   Kidnapping (Parts of speech: abduct v)
  • Contoh: Pirates got many crew members by abduction, snatching unlucky citizens from seaport towns.

coerce

  • Definisi: coerce v.   To force; to put pressure on someone to do something (Parts of speech:  coercion n, coercive adj)
  • Contoh: A criminal’s confession is not usable in court if the police coerce him or her into giving it.

detain

  • Definisi: detain v. To prevent someone, for a relatively short time, from going on their way (Parts of speech:  detention n, detainee n)
  • Contoh: The police detained at least 20 men for questioning, but charged none of them with a crime.

deviant

  • Definisi: deviant adj.   In a style that is not normal and is offensive to many (Parts of speech               deviant n, deviation n, deviate v)
  • Contoh:  The artist based his reputation on creating deviant works of art that disgusted most of the public.
  • Tips: Deviant always implies a bad opinion of someone or something.

distort

  • Definisi: distort v. To twist or misrepresent; to make something seem different from what it really is (Parts of speech: distortion n)
  • Contoh: If you hold a pencil in a glass of water, the water distorts the appearance of the pencil.

intentionally

  • Definisi: intentionally adv.   On purpose, not by accident (Parts of speech: intent n, intention n. intend v, intentional adj)
  • Contoh:  Danny intentionally lost his last golf ball because he was tired of playing.

piracy

  • Definisi: piracy n. Stealing a ship or taking the ship’s cargo; the unlawful copy-ing of books, CDs, etc. (Parts of speech pirate n, pirate v)
  • Contoh: (1) Modern-day piracy occurs mostly near groups of small, uninhabited islands where pirates can hide. (2)  The software company constantly battled piracy.

predicament

  • Definisi: predicament n.   A difficult situation, one that is hard to get out of
  • Contoh: College basketball stars face the predicament of wanting to gradu-ate but being tempted by high professional salaries.

smuggle

  • Definisi: smuggle v.   To illegally bring things into a country (Parts of speech: smuggler n, smuggling n)
  • Contoh: The pirate Ben Dewar smuggled guns to British and Indian fighters in North America.

villainy

  • Definisi: villainy n. Exceptional badness, as demonstrated by many serious evil deeds (Parts of speech: villain n, villainous adj)
  • Contoh: Fred was not a natural criminal, but he learned all kinds of villainy while being jailed for a minor crime.

Latihan Persiapan TOEFL 1:  Find the word or phrase that is closest in meaning to the opposite of each word in the left-hand column. Write the let-ter in the blank.

  • …….1. detain ——- (a) clarify
  • …….2. distort ——- (b) by acident
  • …….3. villainy ——- (c) let go
  • …….4. intentionally ——- (d) normal
  • …….5. deviant ——- (e) good deeds

Latihan Persiapan TOEFL 2: Choose the word from the list that is closest in meaning to the underlined part of each sentence. Write it in the blank.

abducted               coerced   piracy     predicament          smuggled

  • 1. The police force’s difficult situation invoveed a bank robber who thrreatened to shoot a bank employee if any police approached.
  • 2. Despite laws restricting animal imports, thousands of monkeys and lemurs and other wild animals are broght ilegally into the United States.
  • 3. The enemy captured and took away the general’s son.
  • 4. Two men were convicted of stealing a boat near the Riau Island
  • 5. By threating to set fire to their ship, the governor of Bermuda pressured the pirate crew to give themselves up.

Latihan Persiapan TOEFL 3: Read the passage to review the vocabulary you have learned. Answer the question that follows.

The Spanish explorer Pizarro’s abduction of the Inca King Atahualpa came in 1529. His men detained the king, coerced the Incas into paying a large ransom in gold and silver, and then intentionally killed the king anyway.Their conquest of Peru established the legendary Spanish Main— Spanish holdings on the mainland of Central and South America. The predicament for Spain’s kings was how to get the riches of the New World to Spain. Pirates and privateers ruled the waves. To distort what was actually just robbery, the king of England issued “letters of marque,” licenses that turned certain pirates into agents of the British government. Their piracy against Spanish ships and Spanish gold was considered service to the king or queen of England.

Most pirates with such letters were social deviants anyway, and predictably, they became embarrassments to the British crown. In 1603, Britain’s King James I canceled all his government’s letters of marque. The many dangerous, unemployed pirates became buccaneers, a terrifying mix of tough characters that operated from the island of Hispaniola. They conducted merciless raids on Spanish settlements and formed a brotherhood known for theft, torture, smuggling, and villainy of all sorts.

An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting three answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. In each blank, write the letter of one of your choices.

  • a. The establishment of the Spanish Main provided rich targets for pirates and privateers, often with government encouragement.
  • b. Pizarro’s men abducted King Atahualpa in 1529.
  • c.By issuing letters of marque, the kings of England gave their ap-proval of raids on Spanish ships.
  • d. Piracy in the South China Sea was also a problem at this time.
  • e. Pirates who worked for the English crown were known as bucca-neers.
  • f. Sailing under a letter of marque, a privateer could steal property in the king’s name.
  • g. Eventually, the English crown was embarrassed by the behavior of its privateers and h. ganceled the letters of marque.

Key: Latihan Persiapan TOEFL 1: 1.c, 2.a, 3.e, 4.b, 5.d  Latihan Persiapan TOEFL 2: a.predicament, 2.smuggled, 3.abducted    Latihan Persiapan TOEFL 3: b, e, f

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