Reading for TOEFL – Blood Donating

Reading for TOEFL – Blood Donating

Question 1 – 10 Refer to the following passage

People have been donating blood since the early twentieth century to help acci-dent victims and patients undergoing surgical procedures. Usually a pint of whole blood is donated, and it is then divided into platelets, white blood cells, and red blood cells. People can donate blood (for red blood cells) about once every two months.

Transfusing the blood from the donor to the recipient is straightforward. It involves taking the blood from a donor’s arm vein by means of a hypodermic syringe. The blood flows through a plastic tube to a collection bag or bottle that contains sodium citrate, which prevents the blood from clotting.

When the blood is given to a patient, a plastic tube and hypodermic needle are connected to the recipient’s arm. The blood flows down from the container by gravity. This is a slow process and may last as long as 2 hours to complete the infusion of blood into the recipient. The patient is protected from being infected during the transfusion. Only sterile con-tainers, tubing, and needles are used, and this helps ensure that transfused or stored blood is not exposed to disease-causing bacteria.

Negative reactions to transfusions are not unusual. The recipient may suffer an allergic reaction or be sensitive to donor leukocytes. Some may suffer from an undetected red-cell incompatibility. Unexplained reactions are also fairly common. Although they are rare, other causes of such negative reactions include contaminated blood, air bubbles in the blood, overloading of the circulatory system through administration of excess blood, or sensitivity to donor plasma or platelets.

Today, hospitals and blood banks go to great lengths to screen all blood donors and their blood. All donated blood is routinely and rigorously tested for dis-eases, such as HIV (which causes AIDS), hepatitis B, and syphilis. When the recipient is a newborn or an infant, the blood is usually irradiated to eliminate harmful elements. Donated blood is washed, and the white blood cells and platelets are removed.

Storing the blood sometimes requires a freezing process. To freeze the red blood cells, a glycerol solution is added. To unfreeze, the glycerol is removed. The ability to store blood for long periods has been a boon to human health.

1. Which of the following words is closest in meaning to the word “donating” in line 1?

  • a. Adorning
  • b. Giving
  • c. Taking
  • d. Distributing

2. In line 5, the word “it” refers to

  • a. accident victims
  • b. surgical procedures
  • c. a pint of whole blood
  • d. surgery patients

3. According to the passage, how often can people donate blood for red blood cells?

  • a. Every four months
  • b. Every three months
  • c. Every two months
  • d. Every month

4. Where in the passage is the best place for the following sentence?

  • a. Inserting the needle into the recipient’s arm causes little pain.
  • b. After the last sentence in the first paragraph
  • c. After the word “syringe” in para-graph 2
  • d. After the word “arm” in paragraph 3

5. After the word “transfusion” in para-graph 3

Which sentence in paragraph 2 explains how clotting is prevented in the blood container?

  • a. The first sentence
  • b. The second sentence
  • c. The third sentence
  • d. None of the above.

6. All of the following are mentioned as potential negative reactions to transfu-sions EXCEPT

  • a. allergies
  • b. red-cell incompatibility
  • c. air bubbles in the blood
  • d. sensitivity to donor leukocytes

7. What answer choice is closest in meaning to the word “undetected” in line 35?

  • a. Not wanted
  • b. Not captured
  • c. Not found
  • d. Not illustrated

8. Look at the phrase “go to great lengths to screen” in paragraph 5, lines 44–45. Choose the word that has the same meaning.

  • a. Routinely
  • b. Rigorously
  • c. Irradiated
  • d. Removed

9. Based on the information in the passage, what can be inferred about blood transfused to infants and newborns?

  • a. It is as rigorously tested as blood for adults.
  • b. It is treated with radiant energy.
  • c. It is not treated differently from adults.
  • d. It is not dangerous for children.

10. What does the author imply in the pas-sage?

  • a. Transfusing blood is a dangerous process.
  • b. Storing blood benefits mankind.
  • c. Clotting cannot be prevented.
  • d. Freezing blood destroys platelets.

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